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1. Product & Services

IRCA has proven capabilities to provide the following services:

  • Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment Consulting
  • HSE Management System Consulting
  • Training in Related topics

1.1 Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment Consulting

IRCA has extensive expertise base in the areas of Hazard identification and Risk assessment studies are as under:

“HAZID” study is a multidisciplinary team oriented analytical technique that utilizes creative brainstorming to examine a process or operation.   Hazard identification is a fundamental stage in a facility risk assessment. It is important that it is performed in a thorough and systematic way to ensure that as many hazards are identified as possible.   HAZID (HAZard IDentification) is a technique for early identification of potential hazards and their causes. HAZID is mainly done on plot plan. The main objective of performing a HAZID is to comprehensively identify and develop credible scenarios or causes which could adversely impact safety of the facility by utilising both the experience of design, operational and safety personnel. The aim is to identify events that have a very real possibility of occurring at the facility.   The Hazard Identification (HAZID) process involved the following steps:  
  • Selection of an Area/System/Equipment in which a hazardous situation may occur;
  • Identification (“brainstorming”) of a top event for that hazard group;
  • Analysis of causes by which undesired events could occur and potential consequences;
  • A qualitative risk assessment of the identified hazards using a risk matrix;
  • Identification of the proposed control measures to prevent the accident occurring or mitigate the consequences;
  • Available safeguards are analyzed;
  • If required recommendations are made to control the hazards;
  • Record results, including recommendations
“HAZOP” study is a multi-disciplinary team oriented analytical technique that utilizes creative brainstorming to examine a process hazards and operability issue.   HAZOP is a formal procedure to review design and operation of hazardous process facilities. It is used to identify deviations from normal safe operation, which could lead, to hazards or operability problems, and to define any actions necessary to deal with such deviations.   The Hazard & Operability (HAZOP) process involved the following steps:  
  • Identify a section of plant on the P&ID referred as ‘Node’
  • Define the design intent and normal operation conditions of the section.
  • Identify a deviation from design intent or operating conditions by applying a system of guidewords.
  • Identify possible causes for, and consequences of, the deviation. A deviation can be considered meaningful if it has credible cause and can result in harmful consequences.
  • For a meaningful deviation, decide what action, if any is necessary.
  • Available safeguards are analyzed;
  • If required recommendations are made to control the hazards or operability issue;
  • Record results, including recommendations
A Safety Instrumented Function (SIF) is a function implemented by means of instruments and is provided to reduce the likelihood or magnitude of an accident to personnel or the facility itself in terms of asset, environmental and production loss. A SIF is designed to achieve or maintain a safe state of the process or mitigate consequences, in response to a specific upset scenario. A SIF may consist of one or more initiators (sensors, transmitters), the logic solver (trip amplifiers, safety interlocks, fail safe output), and one or more final elements (valves, motors, etc.) and utilities such as power and instrument air supply required to perform the function. The reliability of each SIF in preventing/ mitigating the hazards is reflected in the performance requirement placed upon each SIF. This performance requirement is defined in the form of a Safety Integrity Level (SIL). SIL, which is numerically defined as a Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD), indicates the degree of reliability of the function.  

SIL classification: The SIL classification is to gather a SIL team to assess every safety loop. The assessment is guided by the likelihood or magnitude of an accident to personnel or the facility itself in terms of asset, environmental and production loss. When each SIL loop is classified, it is assumed that all other loops function correctly. As a result, only final element failure is considered where on initiator activates more than one function. The SIL team will discuss and agree on the health and safety, economic and environmental consequences of the loop failing to operate on demand. Each consequence will then have an assigned SIL according to the respective risks matrixes.    

SIL Verification: A Safety Instrumented Function SIF may consist of one or more initiators (sensors, transmitters), the logic solver (PLC) and one or more final elements (valves, motors, etc.) and utilities such as power and instrument air supply required to perform the function. The reliability of each SIF in preventing/ mitigating the hazards is reflected in the performance requirement placed upon each SIF. This performance requirement is defined in the form of a Safety Integrity Level (SIL). SIL, which is numerically defined as a Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD), indicates the degree of reliability of the function.
“Design Review” study is a multi-disciplinary team oriented analytical technique that utilizes creative brainstorming to examine a process hazards and operability issue during design stage   The objectives of a Design Review (DR) study are to identify design issue related to process, mechanical, piping, civil, Electrical, layout and operating philosophy from the intended operations.
The SIMOPS study is carried out through a workshop to be attended by production and Construction team members and facilitated by a competent study leader.   A matrix of all production and construction is developed at the beginning of workshop session. The issues related to interfacing of the risk are then discussed through cross reference of each Construction activity with each production activity.  Based upon the discussions the simultaneous operation activity is to be designated as:   The issues related to interfacing of the risk are discussed through cross reference of each construction activity with each production operation activities.  Based upon the discussions the activity has been designated:  

Y- Permitted: Where there are no hazards or risk profile by performing the activities concurrently. It means that the two activities can be carried out following normal work procedures.

N-Not Permitted: Where the hazards introduced are considered excessive and the activities should not be conducted concurrently.

  R-Restricted: Where potential hazards or risk could be elevated by the simultaneous operations and may require restrictions to be imposed or contingencies implemented. Such Restrictions are indicated as R1, R2 & so on and description of that restriction is tabulated.
Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is a valuable tool for determining the risk from hazardous activities of facility or operation. It is quantifies risks in terms of probability and consequence and compares results with risk criteria to determine whether risk is acceptable or unacceptable. QRA is estimate risk levels and assess significance and identify main risk contributors. The risk results are presented in the following standard forms:  
  • Individual risk contours which show the geographical distribution of risk to an individual.
 
  • Group risk (FN) curves which show the cumulative frequency (F) distribution of accidents causing different numbers (N) of fatalities. The FN curve therefore indicates whether the societal risk to the facility is dominated by relatively frequent accidents causing small numbers of fatalities or low frequency accidents causing many fatalities.
The objective of FERA study is to calculate consequences of hydrocarbon release, fire and explosion hazards. This with reference to an impairment criteria is used to optimize the location of fire & gas detection system, fire fighting system and verifying the over pressure loads for structures and decks against the expected explosion hazards.
Escape, Evacuation & Rescue analysis is mostly used for offshore installations in order to evaluate the vulnerability of escape routes and Muster areas in case of a fire or explosion.
This is an evaluation of Threats & barriers against a Top event. The Bow tie representation also considers Escalation factors and used to identify safety critical tasks and safety critical equipments.
Safety case and COMAH regulations are from UK for offshore and onshore installation. The objective is to demonstrate that at any given site the hazards are identified, risk evaluated and a management system is in place to manage the risk.
Project HSE Review is used at project stages (Conceptual; FEED, Detail engineering, Construction & commissioning & operations) to ensure that the HSE studies to be carried out at each stage have been identified, performed to the expectations of company standards and the recommendations emerging from such studies have been implemented.

1.2 HSE Management System Consulting

IRCA has resources to carry out HSE Audit, Facilitation for Development of HSEMS and Accident Investigation mainly for companies operating oil & gas installations.

1.3 Training in Related topics

As one of the leading organisations in the field of safety and risk analysis, IRCA is uniquely placed to offer training courses on Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, Accident Investigation, HAZOP Leader, Hazard Awareness & HSEMS topics.

2. RESOURCES

2.1 Software & Database

Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is a valuable tool for determining the risk from hazardous activities of facility or operation. It is quantifies risks in terms of probability and consequence and compares results with risk criteria to determine whether risk is acceptable or unacceptable.   Phast Risk allows you to quickly identify major risk contributors. Time and effort can then be directed to mitigating these highest risk activities.   Phast Risk i.e. SAFETI (Software for the Assessment of Flammable, Explosive and Toxic Impact) is by far the most comprehensive quantitative tool available for assessing process plant risks. It is designed to perform all the analytical, data processing and results presentation elements of a QRA within a structured framework. Phast Risk analyses complex consequences from accident scenarios, taking account of local population and weather conditions, to quantify the risks associated with the release of hazardous chemicals. It can be used during your strategic planning, facility siting and layout, and for detailed risk and safety assessments.   Phast Risk will calculate the risk associated with your installation and produce risk contours, FN curves and top risk contributors. With this information, the safety of an installation against any risk criteria can be assessed and guidance obtained concerning possible mitigation measures, such as changes in design, operation, response or land use planning. Risk results are available graphically and may be overlaid on digitised maps, satellite photos and plant layouts.
Phast Consequence provides comprehensive hazard analysis capability, examining the progress of a potential incident from the initial release to its far –field effects. After you have identified your major hazards, Phast consequence allows you to predict all possible complex consequences from releases of hazardous material. It includes a wide range of models for discharge and dispersion as well as flammable, explosive and toxic effects.   Phast includes models for hazard analysis of installations these include:  
  • Discharge and Dispersion models, including DNV's proprietary Unified Dispersion Model (UDM) resulting LFL value & discharge rate.
  • Model for flammable hazards including resulting heat radiation, jet fires, pool fires, flash fires and BLEVEs effects.
  • TNO Explosion model to calculate overpressure and impulse effects.
  • Models for the toxic hazards of a release including indoor toxic dose calculations
  The consequence results are available graphically and may be on maps, satellite photos and plant layouts.
PLATO is a software system for the analysis of risk to personnel on offshore platforms. In particular, it concentrates on the complex escalation of fire and explosion events taking full account of the platform's geometry, the vulnerability of individual platform components, the process fluids, the interconnections between wellheads, vessels, risers and other key process items, and the arrangement of protective systems. PLATO starts from a 3-dimensional model of the platform, into which is introduced an initiating accidental event. PLATO then simulates the platform's response to the initiating event, accounting for the various possibilities regarding success or failure of the emergency control systems, to generate a comprehensive set of accidental event scenarios. To do this, it uses the technique of "object-oriented" programming, which is well suited to simulating the behaviour of complex systems having a great variety of dissimilar components. A PLATO model comprises a set of "objects" selected from a library of object types, each of which has been derived to represent a particular platform component, or class of components. Each object obeys it own internal rules and can communicate with other objects by passing messages. The behaviour of each object may depend on the messages it receives and on time. A master program, the Run Time System (RTS), carries out the message-handling, time-keeping, logging and housekeeping.   The following platform components can be represented by the object types available in PLATO:
  • support structure
  • modules
  • blast/fire walls, etc
  • Process plant, including emergency depressurisation and isolation
  • valves
  • Protective systems, e.g. the fire water system
  • The normal location of personnel
  • A Temporary Refuge (TR) and its evacuation systems.
  The object models are written using object-oriented design, which makes the production of robust and easily-maintained code much easier for this type of simulation. One advantage is that the coding of submodels is disentangled from the main number-crunching algorithms in a particularly clean way. Another advantage is that objects with similar attributes can "inherit" that attribute from a higher-level set of objects, so that the programming of this attribute only has to be done once.   The PLATO "front-end" is a Microsoft Windows based SQL database application. The database can be exported as a .dxf file for CAD visualisation of the model, or as .pdf (platform description file) and .evt (events) files for input to the simulator. The .pdf and .evt files specify the normal operating status of the platform and the set of (initiating) loss of containment events, respectively. From these input files the simulator generates a complete set of accidental event scenarios, recording in a log file full details of each scenario as it develops.   The post-processor is then used to extract from the log file individual scenarios, to calculate fatality numbers, risk measures and risk breakdowns, as required by the analyst. The post-processor generates text file output, and output for Microsoft Excel.
PHA-Pro, the world's leading PHA and HAZOP software, assists organizations with the implementation of risk studies easily and thoroughly, resulting in a more comprehensive Process Safety Management and safer business processes. Currently in Version 8, PHA-Pro is the most time-efficient and flexible Process Hazard Analysis tool on the market, delivering a substantial return on your investment and adding tremendous value to your company. Used in process industries such as oil and gas, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals, PHA-Pro will improve your bottom line by optimizing work time, minimizing work stoppages, and reducing the potential for undesirable events.   Data Management & Transparency
  • Data linking features increase consistency across your studies by automatically replicating data in the appropriate areas
  • List of Reference feature creates an unrepeated list of recommendations and links them back into the study, allowing you to record and track progress, and navigate quickly through the studies
  • Advanced professional reporting, preformatted print reports, and auditing tools provide exceptional visibility into process operations
PHAWorks® is a specialized tool for conducting Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) studies, such as HAZOP and What If studies. The software is designed to allow you to start conducting studies straight out of the box, leading you through each step of data entry. Within minutes, you can start documenting your PHA studies more quickly and efficiently while keeping the team focused on the task at hand. PHAWorks® will not get in the way of conducting the study. It is a tool designed to help, not hinder, the performance of the study.   PHA studies, such as HAZOP, What If, and FMEA, have become easier, quicker and more cost effective with PHAWorks®. With the time and cost savings it provides, Many thousands of studies have been completed using PHAWorks®.
Automated Documentation Generation Integration of the SIL selection, Safety Requirements Specification, and SIL verification Lifecycle tasks allows for a clear over­view of your functional safety standards compliance.   The exSILentia tool enables you to specify several Safety Instrumented Functions within a single project, each having its specific SILect, SIF SRS, and SILver records. The automated documenta­tion generation in exSILentia provides easy complete reports for compliance with functional safety standards like ANSI/ISA 84.00.01:2004, IEC 61508, and IEC 61511 that require these Safety Lifecycle activities.   The exSILentia SILver calculations and development process have been independently verified and certified by 3rd party. The tool can beused for Safety Instrumented Functions up to SIL 4. The independent assessment relieves the enduser burden of demonstrating the calculation method for each Safety Instrumented Function or System project.

2.2 Database